Staring Handling

brief overview of string handling was presented in this chapter, it is described in detail. As is the case in most other programming J languages, in Java a string is a sequence of characters. But, unlike many other languages that implement strings as character arrays, Java implements strings as – objects of type String. . Implementing strings as built-in objects allows Java to provide a full complement of features that make string handling convenient. For example, Java has methods to compare two strings, search for a sub string, concatenate two strings, and change the case of letters within a string. Also, String objects can be constructed a number of ways, making it easy to obtain a string when needed.

Somewhat unexpectedly, when you create a String object, you are creating a string that cannot be changed. That is, once a String object has been created, you cannot change the characters that comprise that string. At first, this may seem to be a serious. restriction. However, such is not the case. You can still perform all types of string operations. The difference is that each time you need an altered version of an existing string, a new String object is created that contains the modifications The original string is left unchanged. This approach is used because fixed, immutable strings can be implemented more efficiently than changeable ones. For those cases in which modifiable string is desired, there is a companion class to String called String Buffer, whose objects contain strings that can be modified after they are created. Both the String and String Buffer classes are defined in java.lang. Thus, they are available to all programs automatically. Both are declared final, which means that neither of these classes-may be sub classed. This allows. certain optimizations that increase performance to take place on common string operations.

One last point: To say that the strings within objects of type String are unchangeable means that the contents of the String instance cannot be changed after it has been created. However, a variable declared as a String reference can be changed to point at some other String object at any time.

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